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Breast Cancer, Symptoms, Signs and Treatment

What Is Breast Cancer?

breast cancer
Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is a disease in which one of the cell groups changes in breast tissue and multiplies uncontrollably as a result of a tumor.

Breast cancer is a disease that occurs as a tumor. It allows one of the cell groups to undergo changes in breast tissue and multiply uncontrollably. Cancer tissue first begins to spread around itself. If this disease is not treated in time, cancer also spreads to other organs. At this stage, treatment may stop responding. Breast cancer, which has increased especially in recent years, according to statistics, its incidence is described as around 40-50 per 100,000. According to US data, a woman's breast cancer is expressed as 1/8.

Breast tissue consists of adipose tissue, breast lobes, cavities (sinus), ligaments, lactiferous ducts, and glands. Uncontrolled proliferation of cancer cells in breast tissue and breast cancer disease is known as the most fatal diseases such as heart and vascular diseases. As with all types of cancer, there may be some deterioration in the DNA of healthy cells in this type of cancer. In this case, it causes the disease to multiply uncontrollably. Cancer cells have a long life compared to healthy cells. This is why the cancer cell accumulates after a while. In this case, it leads to the formation of bushels and qualifies as a tumor. There are some ways to protect yourself from this disease, which increases the frequency of its existence in later life. These;

-Avoid cancer-causing substances such as alcohol and cigarettes,

-Exercise regularly and eat healthily,

-Maintain the Ideal weight,

-Mothers with babies to breastfeed for the first 6 months,

-Be careful when using hormone drugs,

Breast Cancer Symptoms

Breast cancer symptoms vary from person to person. Radiological examination is used to understand that the cancerous tissue found in the breast. This process may take some time. Most women can feel this unexpected mass which is generally around 1cm diameter with their hand. Most people find their discomfort in this way. Cancerous masses are seen as hard, the surface is rough, with irregular edges, and do not move in the breast tissue. Breast cancer symptoms can be listed as;

  • Mass or stiffness felt by hand in the breast,

  • Change in direction or shape at the nipple,

  • Breast has an orange peel-like appearance,

  • Eczema, redness, cracking, crusting in the breast,

  • Pain in a person's breast during menstruation,

  • Liquid flow from the nipple in red and pink color,

  • Swelling and size increase in the breast

  • Asymmetry state between the two breasts,

  • Stiffness, mass, swelling under the armpit,

The above symptoms can be noticed when checked manually with hands. But it is still necessary to see a specialist to be sure. The regions are the places that the breast cancer shows itself; the bones of the spine, lungs, liver, and hip. As with other types of cancer, breast cancers also have a stage.

The symptoms of breast cancer in men are the same as those seen in women. Breast cancer in men occurs with similar symptoms, such as secretion from the nipple, redness of the nipple. At the same time, symptoms such as shrinkage of breast tissue, painless swelling, and swelling of the nipple can be seen. But these symptoms may not always be a sign of cancer. Therefore, the person should consult a doctor. If there are symptoms such as the above, the possibility of early diagnosis is considerably high.

Stages Of Breast Cancer

There are stages in breast cancer. These symptoms may appear different at each stage. At the same time, when breast cancer is examined with pictures, the difference in skin tissue can be seen. This disease consists of 5 stages and 3 sub-stages. At the same time, the stages of breast cancer indicate a person's health status.

  • Stage 0: cancer is in the stage of formation and has started to spread to surrounding tissues. It is limited in the area where it begins to form.

  • Stage 1: breast cancer is considered at the initial stage as it can spread at this stage. The first stage indicates that the tumor is not more than 2 cm wide, the cancer cells do not spread to another place than the breast.

  • Stage 2: there is no tumor at this stage. But cancer is found in the lymph nodes located under the armpit. But in some cases, the tumor is more than 2 cm and less than 5 cm. In this case, it has not spread to the armpit lymph nodes.

  • Stage 2B: cancer has spread to lymph nodes larger than 2 cm and smaller than 5 cm. But in some cases, it may not have spread to the armpit lymph nodes.

  • Stage 3: at this stage, the tumor is not seen in the breast. But cancer occurs when the armpit lymph nodes are attached to each other or to surrounding tissues. But if the tumor is seen at this stage, it is less than 5 cm and has spread to surrounding tissues.

  • Stage 3B: at this stage, the tumor can be of any size. At the same time, the skin adjacent to the breast has spread to tissues such as the chest wall, muscles located in the chest wall, and ribs. Cancer can spread to the lymph nodes under the arm and inside the breast.

  • Stage 4: at this stage, cancer appears to have spread to other areas of the body. At this stage, treatment is aimed at increasing the patient's life expectancy and keeping the quality of life at a high level.

Breast Cancer Treatment

Breast cancer treatment has surgical methods, mastectomy, breast protective surgery, lymph node surgery, and radiation therapy. At the same time, this cancer can also be treated with medications. Chemotherapy, hormone therapies are examples of medication treatments.

  1. Simple mastectomy: all breasts, including nipples, are taken. But the lymph nodes under the armpit and novelties under the breast are not removed.

  2. Skin-protective mastectomy: in some surgical cases, the breast can be reconstructed. This process is called skin protective mastectomy. The skin and nipple on the breast are untouched.

  3. Radical mastectomy: All breast, armpit glands, and chest wall muscles located under the breast are removed. This method has been most used for cancer patients in the past.

  4. Breast protective surgery: with early detection of breast cancer, only the affected part of the breast is removed. But in the part to be taken, it may vary depending on the size and location of the tumor.

  5. Lymph node surgery: in breast cancer, the armpit lymph nodes are examined by taking more than one lymph node to determine the spread. If there are signs of cancer, it helps what treatment path to go. Besides, if signs of cancer are found in the lymph nodes, it is an indicator that it has spread to other organs.

  6. Radiation therapy: in the treatment of cancer, radiation therapy is aimed at destroying cancer cells thanks to the beam given to the armpit and breast.




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